General Information


LOCATION :  
Latitude 26°22'N to 30°27' North
Longitude 80°04'E to 88°12' East
   
SIZE : NEPAL FACT SHEET
Area 147181 Sq. Km.
Geography Situated between China in the North and India in the South, East and West
Length 885 Km. [East to West]
Width Non-uniform, Mean width of 193 Km. [North to South]
Altitude 70 meters to 8848 meters
Capital City Kathmandu
Language Nepali
Currency Nepalese Rupee
Religion Secular State
Fiscal Year Nepalese Fiscal Year starts from Mid July
Political System Constitutent Assembly (Republic)
National Bird Impean Pheasant (Danfe)
National Flower Rhododendron Arboreum (Lali Gurans)
Administrative and Physical Division 
Administratively, the country is divided into five development regions, i.e., Eastern, Central, Western, Midwestern and Far Western. The regions are further divided into a total of 75 Districts with a total of 3,915 village development committees (VDCs) and 58 municipalities. A VDC is the smallest administrative unit, which is further divided into nine wards, each of which elects a representative to the VDC. VDCs are considered as grassroots political institutions, through which the people are expected to participate directly in the planning, programming, and implementation of development programs and projects at the local level. The municipalities are also divided into wards, which range from 9 - 35. The number of wards varies as per the size of the town.
The next level in the administration is composed of the District Development Committees (DDCs). With the passing of the New Act on Local Self Governance (1998), the DDCs are supposed to undertake planning and programming exercises within districts and implement them. Only national level projects fall under the authority of the Central Government. 
Climate 
Nepal has huge variance in attitude and topography, hence diversity of weather and climate. The country experiences tropical, meso thermal, micro thermal, taiga and tundra type of climate. There are four climatic seasons in Nepal namely- spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring and autumn are the most pleasant seasons. The Terai is hot and humid in summer with temperature going up to 41o C. The mid-mountain regions are pleasant all round the year. The Northern Himalayan region has an alpine climate. In Kathmandu the maximum temperature in winter is normally 18° C to 20°C and in summer it goes to about 30°C- 32°C.
Nepal receives most of its rains during the three summer months Mid June � Mid September. The annual rainfall in Katmandu generally exceeds 1300 mm. The mean annual precipitation ranges from more than 6000 mm along the southern slopes of the Annapurna range in central Nepal to less than the 250 mm in the north central portion near the Tibetan plateau. Amounts varying between 1500 and 2500 mm predominate over most of the country. On an average, about 80% of the precipitation is confined to the monsoon period (June-September). The highest annual rainfall recorded so far is 4217 mm at Pokhara in 1993. 
Geographic Division
( Census year 2001) Ecologically Nepal can be divided into three ecological regions: Namely: Mountain: 35 percent, Hill: 42 percent, Terai: 23 percent.
Mountain Region: 
The altitude of this region ranges between 4877 meters and 8848 meters with the snow line running around 8848 meters. It includes 8 of the existing 14 summits in the world, which exceed the altitude of 8000 meters. They are: (1) Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) - 8848 m (2) Kangchenjunga - 8586 m, (3) Lhotse - 8516 m, (4) Makalu - 8463 m, (5) Cho Oyo - 8201 m, (6) Dhaulagiri - 8167 m, (7) Manaslu - 8163 m, and (8) Annapurna - 8091 m.
Hill Region:
This region accounts for about 64 percent of total land area. The Mahabharat range that raises up to 4877 meters forms it. To its south lies the lower Churia range whose altitude varies from 610 meters to 1524 meters.
Terai Region:
The lowland Terai region, which has a width of about 26 to 32 kilometers and an altitude maximum of 305 meters, occupies about 17 percent of total land area of the country. Kechanakawal, the lowest point of the country with an altitude of 70 meters lies in Jhapa District of the eastern Terai.